Timeline: Somalia's road from 1991 collapse to permanent government

By Sabahi Staff

November 02, 2012

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Since the collapse of the central government in 1991, Somalia has had a series of transitional governments, some of them ineffective or practically non-existent. But with the advent of a new and permanent government, Somalia has begun to leave the transitional era behind.

  • A picture from May 29, 1990 shows Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre at an Arab Summit. Barre ruled Somalia from October 1969, when he led a military coup against the democratically elected government, until January 1991, when the central government collapsed. [Mike Nelson/AFP]

    A picture from May 29, 1990 shows Somali President Mohamed Siad Barre at an Arab Summit. Barre ruled Somalia from October 1969, when he led a military coup against the democratically elected government, until January 1991, when the central government collapsed. [Mike Nelson/AFP]

In 2012, Somali lawmakers succeeded in passing a new constitution, and then elected Hassan Sheikh Mohamud as president in the first election held in Somalia in more than two decades.

January 26, 1991: President Mohamed Siad Barre is ousted. A power struggle between clan warlords kills or wounds thousands of civilians.

June 1991: Five months after the fall of Somalia's central government, President Hassan Guled Abtidon of Djibouti invited Somalia's warring factions for talks for the first time in Djibouti.

July 1991: A second conference is held in Djibouti and participating parties agree to appoint Ali Mahdi Mohamed as the interim president of Somalia for two years.

General Mohamed Farah Aidid rejects the appointment of Mohamed as the interim president.

January 1993: The United Nations sponsors a meeting for warring factions in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia to end the ongoing civil war.

March 1993: Rival factions sign the Addis Ababa Agreement in which they agreed to reconciliation and disarmament, but the civil war continues, and the agreement falls apart.

October 1996: Kenyan former President Daniel Arap Moi invites three main faction leaders -- Ali Mahdi Mohamed, Hussein Aidid and Osman Atto -- for peace talks in Nairobi.

November 1996-January 1997: Moi's peace efforts are hampered when Ethiopia invites 26 factions to a peace conference in Sodere, Ethiopia. The Sodere talks run from November 1996 to January 1997, with 41 tribal leaders representing the 26 factions.

November 1997: The Sodere's conference is derailed by another reconciliation conference held in Cairo for Somalia's warring parties.

May 2000-August 2000: Djiboutian President Ismail Omar Guelleh hosts the Somalia National Peace Conference in Arta, which establishes the Transitional National Government (TNG). Somali representatives elect Abdiqasim Salad Hasan as TNG president.

December 2003: The TNG's administrative body reports bankruptcy.

October 2002-October 2004: The Inter-Governmental Authority on Development (IGAD) sponsors the Somali National Reconciliation Conference in Eldoret, Kenya. The talks result in the adoption of the Transitional Federal Charter and the election of Abdullahi Yusuf Ahmed as president of Somalia's Transitional Federal Government (TFG), which replaces the TNG. The TFG is to move Somalia out of transition by August 2009 when its mandate expires.

June 2006-December 2006: The Islamic Courts Union (ICU) led by Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed rules most of southern Somalia after ICU forces oust Somali warlords from Mogadishu.

December 2006: Somali and Ethiopian forces capture Mogadishu after the ICU is forced out of the city.

January 2007: The African Union's Peace and Security Council establishes the African Union Mission in Somalia (AMISOM) as a peacekeeping force with an initial mandate of six months to support reconciliation efforts. The UN Security Council also approves the mission in February.

September 2007: ICU leaders and opposition figures from the TFG meet in Asmara, Eritrea and form the Alliance for the Re-liberation of Somalia (ARS).

June 2008: Government signs a three-month ceasefire pact with the ARS in Djibouti, but ARS leader Hassan Dahir Aweys rejects the truce, causing the organisation to suffer internal splits.

May 2008-June 2008: Representatives of the TFG and the ARS meet in Djibouti between May 31st and June 9, 2008 and sign a peace agreement.

January 2009: Somali lawmakers elect TFG President Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed in Djibouti and extend the TFG's five-year mandate for another two years.

February 2011: Somalia's parliament votes to extend the mandate of the Transitional Federal Institutions for another three years with resistance from international observers. Subsequently a feud arises between the speaker of parliament and the president, each requesting that only his own term be extended.

June 9, 2011: TFG President Sheikh Sharif Sheikh Ahmed and Speaker Sharif Hassan Sheikh Aadan sign the Kampala Accord extending the term of all transitional federal institutions for one year. Under the agreement, the TFG is required to adopt a federal constitution, elect a president and bring Somalia's transitional phase to closure by August 20, 2012.

September 6, 2011: Somali and international leaders in Mogadishu announce the Roadmap, a list of dozens of tasks to steer Somalia towards permanent government. It includes measures for countering piracy, co-opting local militia groups, planning for elections, developing peace-building initiatives and tackling corruption.

December 24, 2011: Leaders from across Somalia sign the Garowe Agreement, creating an outline for permanent government and establishing a quota for women's representation in parliament.

February 18, 2012: Leaders from across Somalia sign the Garowe II Agreement, establishing a framework for a federal structure, electoral and parliamentary systems that will replace the TFG in August.

March 26, 2012: Somali leaders in Galkayo agree to implement key steps within the Roadmap to end the transitional period, expanding on previous Garowe agreements and further outlining steps to unify Somalia's regional governments.

May 31-June 1, 2012: Somali and international leaders meet in Istanbul, calling on the international community to continue its support for building and adequately equipping the Somali security forces, including the national police force, navy, coast guard and intelligence agencies during the Somali reconciliation process.

June 20-21, 2012: An official two-day meeting between representatives from the TFG and Somaliland is held in London, launching direct negotiations between the two parties for the first time in more than 20 years.

May 21-23, 2012: Signatories of the Roadmap meet in Addis Ababa and agree on a series of deadlines to build relevant institutions and adopt a new constitution for Somalia.

August 1, 2012: Somali National Constituent Assembly delegates vote overwhelmingly in favour of adopting a new constitution for the country.

August 20, 2012: Somalia's new parliament is sworn in at the airport in Mogadishu, marking the end of the country's transitional period.

September 10th, 2012: Somali parliamentarians elect President Hassan Sheikh Mohamud in the first presidential elections held inside Somalia in over two decades.

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Reader's Comments

  • أردولاند
    September 16, 2013 @ 03:36:59PM

    The worst thing in life is when someone writes history and then writes some parts and omits other parts and has the choice in choosing what he writes and what he omits. The writer has completely ignored the existence of something called Somaliland. He also completely ignored that the reason behind the fall of Siad Barre’s government was what happened in Somaliland. He also ignored the success that took place in Somaliland, including stopping the civil war and establishing a national government before that of Mogadishu by 20 years! He ignored all of that and he didn’t write it as if though when he doesn’t write about something, such thing will disappear. The question that presents itself is: “Don’t these people think that they will be resurrected?!”

  • carab
    June 12, 2013 @ 01:36:37PM

    I hate them.

  • القرافي
    April 26, 2013 @ 10:51:53PM

    Indeed, the owner of this article is very strange. Why he did not mention the details of the separation of northern Somalia from the rest of Somalia? Is not this one of the biggest events in the past two decades? What is the meaning of the repeated meetings between the two republics under international supervision? Why you did not mention the reconciliation conferences in northern Somalia in 1993 and 1996 away from the foreign interference and based on our own efforts? Indeed, blindness is not necessarily limited to eyesight.

  • Hirabe
    April 7, 2013 @ 07:13:21PM

    It is something that they must know about, the different stages and periods the Somali community has gone though. Planning ahead is positive

  • xalima sacdiyo sanka xaaji
    March 24, 2013 @ 01:06:23PM

    This is good. I will very much welcome you if you are analyzing issues of Somalia.

  • ahmed mohamed ali
    March 23, 2013 @ 06:52:46PM

    That is great. I have been delighted by the beautiful way you prepared the history of our country, my brothers and I appreciate your effort even I am a young boy who has not seen the government of the father of Somalia; M Siyad Bare.

  • abdi fitaax maxamuud axmad
    March 23, 2013 @ 03:51:52AM

    May God's peace be upon you all. I would like to say this is the first success in the form of government we go in Somalia and our thanks goes to God and Somali leaders who persevered. I would like to tell you not to be tired of motivating people and making the people of Somalia happy as this will help us achieve everything. Increase the number of organizations to sensitize the community, kill the morale of the enemy, strengthen the security and show the existence of government. Good bye all of you.

  • علي عبدي مهد
    December 20, 2012 @ 02:08:13AM

    Establishing a strong state in Somalia means the Somali people will stand on their feet.

  • Abdirisack-Africa
    December 17, 2012 @ 11:16:40PM

    I would like to thank you a lot brothers, God willing. I believe the history of our country will benefit me and many other people.

  • Mohamed muse yussuf
    December 17, 2012 @ 06:00:37AM

    This is really fantastic and welcomable idea, to me as individual i feel like impressed,because of this article which reminded me of many things i never witnessed, ofcouse, i was not there, or else iwas unmature, thanks to author of this article. This editorial pieces of writting is what we need as of teenagers, last but not the least i pray for my home country, and i pray may God bless & befall peace onto our country, thanks

  • Dr.abdirahman
    December 15, 2012 @ 03:20:10PM

    Peace on you brothers. It is good to provide editorial or reports about the history of Somalia. Thank you. By Abdrahman.

  • Gelle
    December 12, 2012 @ 01:34:56PM

    it is good to be loyal to country for this term

  • Mahadcasri
    December 11, 2012 @ 05:52:42AM

    Xassan is the best

  • mohamed mkonde
    December 5, 2012 @ 11:47:49PM

    I wish Somalia a good and peaceful journey because they have come from far since 1991 when they did not have a government until today 7.12.12 when they have a government which can at least stand. Somalia rise up we need you in our world. With a good government.

  • salmaan
    November 23, 2012 @ 03:28:05PM

    New conditions facing Geddo region.

  • mohamed khalif
    November 16, 2012 @ 03:21:46PM

    this is a fact based on truth about the progress somalia is making towards achieving a stable centralized government structure in somalia

  • yonis
    November 16, 2012 @ 02:12:23PM

    i think this is the end of two decades of civil war, because every nation on this world has had severe times in its history.

  • kipkoech stanley
    November 16, 2012 @ 04:04:23AM

    somali once stable will creat dynamic business opportunities across east and central africa,it hsa a working population capable of turning economy to greater heights.

  • Libaan
    November 14, 2012 @ 11:15:03AM

    Somali military is the key to success, long live the SNA and Genaral Dhagabadane

  • Muhudin Ibrahim
    November 14, 2012 @ 02:43:06AM

    I got this website which has given me history that I held in random unexpectedly.

  • Mohamed Essa Hussein
    November 14, 2012 @ 12:01:09AM

    Even though happiness was born in Somalia, then the Somalis will not agree on one thing. It is good for the Somalis to become united, or else it will remain divided till the dooms' day.

  • xuseen maqtuub cabdi
    November 5, 2012 @ 09:59:55PM

    I am very happy about the formation of official government of Somalia and I pray to God to strengthen our peace. I am sure those living in Diaspora will return to their motherland if peace is restored. May God give us peace and may He not make us need foreign countries. May God make the foreigners need us instead.

  • Dahir ahmad hussein
    November 5, 2012 @ 08:51:22AM

    Peace on to all of you. Truly, I think significant changes have happened in the country. I think His Excellency; Hassan Sheikh Mohamud is executing his duties. I would like to personally wish the honorable development considerate knowledge.

  • liban sacdi cabdiqadir
    November 5, 2012 @ 02:18:26AM

    Wonderful! This editorial has really made me happy. It is good and I have not seen another one which is same as this. Personally, it has reminded me of many things that happened in my presence and I witnessed with my eyes. I used to ask myself of when we shall go out of this but it is wonderful today and I hope it will even be better than as it is today. As we govern ourselves as Somalis on our own and I hope that we will be governed by our Somali forces only. I thank the person who wrote this article and all the other participants.

  • Yusuf
    November 4, 2012 @ 11:20:50PM

    It is good if you reminded us of the history of Somalia. Thank you.

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